SOURCES: WebMD Feature: "With Fruits and Veggies, More Matters." 2005 U.S. Dietary Guidelines. Elizabeth Ward, MS, RD, author, The Pocket Idiot's Guide to the New Food Pyramids. Elaine Magee, MPH, RD,author, Comfort Food Makeovers. Brian Wansink, PhD, professor and director, Cornell Food and Brand Lab, Ithaca, N.Y.; author, Mindless Eating. Barbara Rolls, PhD, professor of nutritional sciences; and director, laboratory for the study of human ingestive behaviors, Penn State University; and author, The Volumetrics Eating Plan.
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As you reach 40, your body becomes more insulin resistant, making it easier to gain weight (especially belly fat) and harder to lose it, explains Cederquist. To offset this, controlling carbs is a must, she says—even when eating healthy sources like whole grains. For example, measure out a true serving (like a half cup of cooked brown rice) when you sit down to eat, rather than eyeballing a scoop.
Not so sure about becoming a vegetarian or vegan? That's where the flexitarian diet comes in. You're basically adding new foods into your diet, focusing on plant-based proteins like tofu, beans, nut or soy milk, and eating less meat — but not cutting it out completely. Since vegetarian and vegan diets typically lead to weight loss, you'll see results from being a flexitarian, too: Studies show those who are mostly vegetarian or vegan have a lower BMI than full-on meat-eaters.
Continuing weight loss may deteriorate into wasting, a vaguely defined condition called cachexia. Cachexia differs from starvation in part because it involves a systemic inflammatory response. It is associated with poorer outcomes. In the advanced stages of progressive disease, metabolism can change so that they lose weight even when they are getting what is normally regarded as adequate nutrition and the body cannot compensate. This leads to a condition called anorexia cachexia syndrome (ACS) and additional nutrition or supplementation is unlikely to help. Symptoms of weight loss from ACS include severe weight loss from muscle rather than body fat, loss of appetite and feeling full after eating small amounts, nausea, anemia, weakness and fatigue.
Specific forms of violence that affect women include female genital mutilation, sex trafficking, forced prostitution, forced marriage, rape, sexual harassment, honor killings, acid throwing, and dowry related violence. Governments can be complicit in violence against women, for instance through practices such as stoning (as punishment for adultery).