In 1992, women earned 9 percent of the PhDs awarded in engineering, but only one percent of those women became professors.[citation needed] In 1995, 11 percent of professors in science and engineering were women. In relation, only 311 deans of engineering schools were women, which is less than 1 percent of the total. Even in psychology, a degree in which women earn the majority of PhDs, they hold a significant amount of fewer tenured positions, roughly 19 percent in 1994.[90]
Weight loss occurs when the body is expending more energy in work and metabolism than it is absorbing from food or other nutrients. It will then use stored reserves from fat or muscle, gradually leading to weight loss. For athletes seeking to improve performance or to meet required weight classification for participation in a sport, it is not uncommon to seek additional weight loss even if they are already at their ideal body weight. Others may be driven to lose weight to achieve an appearance they consider more attractive. However, being underweight is associated with health risks such as difficulty fighting off infection, osteoporosis, decreased muscle strength, trouble regulating body temperature and even increased risk of death.[3]
When it came onto the scene, it was revolutionary and totally rule-breaking. Eat all the meaty goodness you want—as long as you drastically cut carbs. And in a study on young, overweight and obese women, Atkins beat out higher-carb plans, when dieters shed over 10 pounds in a year compared to less than five in other diets And, nope, Atkins didn't clog their arteries either. Of course, while it's effective for weight loss, low carb diets can be unbalanced if you eat too much meat and too few veggies. Think about if it fits your lifestyle—and don't give up on the other components of a healthy diet—before hopping on the carb-cutting bandwagon.
Jump up ^ By late 14th century a distinction was arising between female children, often called 'gay girls' – and male, or 'knave girls' -: a1375 William of Palerne (1867) l. 816 ' Whan þe gaye gerles were in-to þe gardin come, Faire floures þei founde.' ('When the gay girls came into the garden, Fair flowers they found.') By the 16th century the unsupported word had begun to mean specifically a female: 1546 J. Heywood Dialogue Prouerbes Eng. Tongue i. x. sig. D, 'The boy thy husbande, and thou the gyrle his wyfe.' The usage meaning 'child of either sex' survived much longer in Irish English. "girl, n.". OED Online. September 2013. Oxford University Press. 13 September 2013
In other words? “Drinking makes you more likely to eat sh*t,” Dr. Seltzer says, referring to drunk foods. At the same time, he stops short of asking patients to quit alcohol cold-turkey to lose weight. Plus, research suggests you don’t have to, as long as your intake is moderate—i.e., less than about a drink a day. “If you drink a glass of wine every night and notice you eat more afterward, eat less early to account for this,” he says. “Or, if you’re drinking four glasses of wine a week, drink three instead so you’ll won’t feel such a big difference.”
Close the Kitchen at Night. Establish a time when you will stop eating so you won't give in to the late-night munchies or mindless snacking while watching television. "Have a cup of tea, suck on a piece of hard candy or enjoy a small bowl of light ice cream or frozen yogurt if you want something sweet after dinner, but then brush your teeth so you will be less likely to eat or drink anything else," suggests Elaine Magee, MPH, RD, WebMD's "Recipe Doctor" and the author of Comfort Food Makeovers.
“A lot of people think the foundation of a paleo diet is high-fat meat, but I suggest that it’s vegetables,” says Hultin. The concept is to eat only foods — including meat, fish, poultry, eggs, fruits, and vegetables — that would have been available to our Paleolithic ancestors. This means grains, dairy, legumes, added sugar, and salt are all no-no’s.
Having trouble finding an affordable pinot noir? Blame Hollywood! According to economists, the 2004 movie Sideways completely reversed the wine’s falling price, with the most dramatic increase in $20 to $40 wines. Also contributing to the hype: Multiple studies have demonstrated that pinot noir consistently contain the highest levels of resveratrol among wines— and resveratrol has been shown to blast fat. One study found that pinot had more than five times the amount found in California cabernet sauvignon.
This one is a proactive wonder! The watermelon core assists the fundamental roles of both the liver and kidneys. This allows them to dispel critical poisons like ammonia. In a similar fashion, the lemons and limes play a formidable role in encouraging healthy intestinal bile interactions. Cucumbers bring nourishment to a new level, and their nutrients are excellent for procuring an aesthetic frame and complexion. Guys will definitely start to notice when a lady switches to this quenching recipe. By providing energy to a woman’s inner core, this drink truly activates alchemy in action. Just one cup a day equals massive sex appeal.
Close the Kitchen at Night. Establish a time when you will stop eating so you won't give in to the late-night munchies or mindless snacking while watching television. "Have a cup of tea, suck on a piece of hard candy or enjoy a small bowl of light ice cream or frozen yogurt if you want something sweet after dinner, but then brush your teeth so you will be less likely to eat or drink anything else," suggests Elaine Magee, MPH, RD, WebMD's "Recipe Doctor" and the author of Comfort Food Makeovers.

Many variations of this eating style exist — ranging from fasting for a number of hours each day up to an entire 24-hour fasting period one or two times a week. “If you're trying to kick a habit like eating late into the night, then stopping eating earlier in the evening and fasting overnight could be beneficial for you,” says Hultin. “There are many types of intermittent fasting, so ensuring you pick one that works for you and your lifestyle is important.”

Continuing weight loss may deteriorate into wasting, a vaguely defined condition called cachexia.[30] Cachexia differs from starvation in part because it involves a systemic inflammatory response.[30] It is associated with poorer outcomes.[25][30][31] In the advanced stages of progressive disease, metabolism can change so that they lose weight even when they are getting what is normally regarded as adequate nutrition and the body cannot compensate. This leads to a condition called anorexia cachexia syndrome (ACS) and additional nutrition or supplementation is unlikely to help.[27] Symptoms of weight loss from ACS include severe weight loss from muscle rather than body fat, loss of appetite and feeling full after eating small amounts, nausea, anemia, weakness and fatigue.[27]

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The voices that carry the farthest over the sea of diet recommendations are those of iconoclasts—those who promise the most for the least, and do so with certainty. Amid the clamor, Dr. David Katz is emerging as an iconoclast on the side of reason. At least, that’s how he describes himself. From his throne at Yale University's Prevention Research Center, where he is a practicing physician and researcher, said sea of popular diet media is the institution against which he rebels. It’s not that nutrition science is corrupt, just that the empty promises of memetic, of-the-moment diet crazes are themselves junk food. To Katz they are more than annoying and confusing; they are dangerous injustice.
Grapefruit symbolizes the zenith of detox principles. When ripe, the uniquely bitter citrus is rife with vitamin A. This is particularly helpful if detoxification is meant to address an overdose or addiction. Unwanted drug reactions can be stopped by introducing grapefruit to the body. It acts fast to reverse adverse chemical responses. Meanwhile, the cucumber increases waters ability to flush the system clean. Oranges finalize the dietary advantages by instilling high concentrations of vitamin C. Harmful chemical agents simply do not stand a chance against this tangy drink. The resulting good health is truly glamorous.
Who could argue with a diet that emphasizes foods like beans, berries, whole grains, greens, nuts, seeds, and potatoes? Those foods are all good fiber-filled picks. The hunger-taming nutrient is a super star for filing you up, so you naturally eat less throughout the day. Not to mention that, when researchers asked people to make just one change to their diet—add more fiber—they were almost four pounds skinnier after a year compared to those following the American Heart Association dietary guidelines. Aim for at least 30 grams a day and you'll be on the right track.

When people ask me about Bukowski, I usually say, just try reading some. There is no one quite like him. The first time I read him, as a college student in the sixties, I was astonished that anyone so depraved could be so literate. As down-and-out as Jim Thompson, but with more booze and explicit, matter-of-fact sex. But for Bukowski, it's not so much about the sex as about the relationships (mostly unsatisfactory), and about the hard vicissitudes in the life of a marginally celebrated author and poet. Above all, Bukowski is funny.


If you want to spend less time cooking and more time eating, the raw food diet could be your solution. The plan — which is mostly vegan — consists of eating foods that are raw or heated below 115 degrees. The diet also means saying goodbye to all processed and pasteurized foods, sugar and flour, caffeine, and salt. It might sound extreme, but because it consists of mostly fruits, veggies, seeds and nuts with no meat or dairy, you're bound to lose weight: Studies have shown a mostly raw diet leads to a decreased amount of body fat, and you don't even have to go full-out to see results.

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Menarche, the onset of menstruation, occurs on average at age 12-13. Many cultures have rites of passage to symbolize a girl's coming of age, such as confirmation in some branches of Christianity,[11] bat mitzvah in Judaism, or even just the custom of a special celebration for a certain birthday (generally between 12 and 21), like the quinceañera of Latin America.

Bloating is directly attributed to water retention, which is something that cucumbers are known to prevent. Water rushes out of the system when cucumbers are consumed consistently. They are especially good for handling weight gain due to a menstrual cycle. Cholesterol is combated by oranges, which also assist the immune systems functions. The other citrus fruits in this blend emphasize a deep intestinal cleansing. Meanwhile, the mint fosters fast nutrient absorption and energy conversion. In general, it also quickens and eases digestion, especially for those who have ulcers or hernias. This recipe focuses on functionality over flavor, but it still has a decent taste.
They also found carbohydrate-selective diets to be better than categorically low-carbohydrate diets, in that incorporating whole grains is associated with lower risks for cancers and better control of body weight. Attention to glycemic load and index is "sensible at the least." Eating foods that have high glycemic loads (which Katz says is much more relevant to health outcomes than glycemic index—in that some quality foods like carrots have very high indices, which could be misleading) is associated with greater risk of heart disease.
Treat your taste buds to a fruit-filled rainbow. Cavalcades of sweet natural treats are infused in this energetic ensemble. The primary ingredient emphasizes a foursome of the following fruits: apples, lemons, oranges and pears. All of them are divided up equally, and the collective is subsequently balanced with an equal amount of strawberries. Alongside a bunch of raspberries and mint leaves, this will be the most satisfying glass of strawberry detox water that you have ever tried. Your goblet would be privileged to contain such a luxuriously satisfying libation. This aromatic water represents the raw juice cleanse of womankind’s future!
See a pattern? Now, I'm not saying these doctors were wrong, exactly. I did need to lose weight. But oddly enough, when I weighed less, the doctors were much more adamant that I lose weight than they are now. When I was actually becoming straight-up obese, it was more of an afterthought. They couldn't ignore my complaints and just say "there's nothing wrong with you," so they added a quick "lose weight."
Forgive yourself. So you were going to have one cracker with spray cheese on it and the next thing you know the can's pumping air and the box is empty? Drink some water, brush your teeth, and move on. Everyone who's ever tried to lose weight has found it challenging. When you slip up, the best idea is to get right back on track and don't look back.
Woman, female, lady are nouns referring to adult human beings who are biologically female; that is, capable of bearing offspring. Woman is the general term. It is neutral, lacking either favorable or unfavorable implication, and is the most commonly used of the three: a wealthy woman; a woman of strong character, of unbridled appetites. In scientific, statistical, and other objective use, female is the neutral contrastive term to male and may apply to plants and animals also: 104 females to every 100 males; Among lions, the female is the chief hunter. Female is sometimes used in disparaging contexts: a gossipy female; a conniving female. Lady meaning “refined, polite woman” is a term of approval or praise: a real lady in all things; to behave like a lady.
While 1,200 may be the right number for some, it can be super restrictive for others, says Jaclyn London, MS, RD, CDN, Nutrition Director at the Good Housekeeping Institute. Try basing your meals and snacks off this plan and double up on veggies at any opportunity — more fruit at snack time works too! You can also add an extra ounce or two of protein at all meals if you find yourself feeling hungry. The combo of fiber from produce and lean protein makes this an adaptable strategy that’ll help you lose weight safely — one meal (and snack) at a time!

Your New Year's resolution diet should be based on a well-balanced eating plan that fits your lifestyle, rather than a weird fad replete with food restrictions. That's according to U.S. News & World Report's best diet rankings for 2018. The two diets that tied for the top spot -- the Mediterranean Diet and the DASH Diet -- fit that bill because they feature real food and reasonable, flexible guidelines, experts said.
Apples are a great inclusion to any detoxification methodology. This is because they linger longer than most fruits, which makes people feel fuller than usual. The end result is an unnoticeably suppressed appetite. Likewise, cinnamon speeds the metabolism to new levels of efficiency by providing extra heat for burning more calories. With fiery spicy sensations and profoundly transformative antioxidants, girls around the globe are pledging allegiance to their newly cultivated physiques. With the best detox water, skinniness happens on its own. As you can see, weight loss is hardly even a real pursuit when the drinks taste this unbelievably good.
If you’ve been eating fast food for years, get real about your approach: You’re probably not going to stick to an organic, gluten-free, paleo overhaul for very long. “You want to change as little as possible to create calorie deficit,” says Dr. Seltzer, who insists the best way to support sustainable weight loss is to incorporate small changes into existing habits. So instead of giving up your daily BLT bagels in favor of an egg-white wrap, try ordering your sandwich on a lighter English muffin. Or say you eat a snack bar every afternoon: Swap your 300-calorie bar for a 150-calorie alternative. “Your brain will feel the same way about it, so you won’t feel deprived,” he says.
On each day, you’ll enjoy—and we do mean enjoy—a blended smoothie designed to complement the natural weight loss and lean muscle gain you’ll see from the Zero Belly program. Studies show that high-protein, low-fat smoothies are highly effective at rushing nutrients to your muscles—which is why Dave recommends you have your drink immediately after exercise—and that blended fruit drinks, which include all the fiber, will actually keep you fuller longer than fruit juices. Click here to get the recipe for his favorite smoothie, the Strawberry Banana. 

Here is the most complete detox agent in the world; however, there is one caveat. This one is not necessarily water. Unlike all of the other entries on this list, the last slot is occupied by a bona fide juice. Part of the reason for this listing is the fact that no one can abide by water 100% of the time. If a relapse is going to occur, it better at least be done right. When a fuller drink is needed, connoisseurs always have this magnificent potion on hand. Its smooth texture stems from nectarines, pears, honeydew and carrots. Beneficial agents include carrots, celery, lemon and ginger.
Earlier this month, the Endocrine Society released a scientific statement saying that people can lose weight on any of roughly a dozen diets assessed by its researchers. A study published in February, meanwhile, found near-identical weight-loss benefits from low-carb versus low-fat diets. Another paper, published just a week later, said vegetarian and Mediterranean diets are equally heart-healthy. 

The idea is that the fasting induces mild stress to the cells in your body, helping them become better at coping with such stress and possibly helping your body grow stronger. The verdict is still out regarding the diet’s long-term effectiveness with weight loss, according to a review of preliminary animal research published in January 2017 in Behavioral Sciences. (17)

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Petey’s Bing Beverage serves up an extra boost of energy from taurine (1000mg), an amino acid you’ll find in many of the sporty energy drinks due to its ability to improve athletic performance. A recent study in the Journal of Cardiology found participants who supplemented with 500 mg of taurine three times daily for two weeks, were able to significantly increase exercise distance. In addition to the 1000mg taurine, you’ll get a healthy dose of polyphenols from the bing cherries, which research suggests can reduce inflammation and improve cardiovascular health. A month-long clinical trial published in the Journal of Nutrition saw a 21 percent reduction in inflammation markers among men and women who supplemented their diets with bing cherries. (By the way, taurine is probably fine in small doses, but chug too much and the picture becomes less clear.)
Drinking green tea regularly may not only boost your fat fighting metabolism, but may also play a key role in weight maintenance and hunger suppression. One study from the Journal of the American College of Nutrition found that in just two months, green tea drinkers lost an average of six pounds more than those who drank plain water. Green tea is also brimming with antioxidants and flavonoids that are good for overall health. Drink freshly brewed tea with no added sugar or cream — bottled store-bought varieties have fewer antioxidants (the  concentration decreases the longer tea sits after brewing) and are often pumped full of honey or sugar.
What makes some grub extra satisfying? "Fiber and protein can help," says Barbara Rolls, author of "The Ultimate Volumetrics Diet." Getting more bang for your bite matters, too: Low-energy-density foods, which yield big portions for few calories, "allow you to eat more without gaining weight," Rolls says. Want some of that? Make room for these secret-weapon picks.
For a richer approach to detoxifying, you cannot surpass the diverse qualities of this renowned recipe. While it relies on the industry standard of lemon and cucumber, this is clearly only just the start. Frozen cranberries are integrated to rebuild the kidneys and restore the urinary tract. A more complete detox experience is generated by the rich presence of cilantro and Italian parsley. Unless you are a diehard dieter, this drink may be hard to consume. Still, it is definitely worth the effort. If your mouth can stomach it, then your stomach definitely can too. Just anticipate the unrepentantly spicy sourness!
Many variations of this eating style exist — ranging from fasting for a number of hours each day up to an entire 24-hour fasting period one or two times a week. “If you're trying to kick a habit like eating late into the night, then stopping eating earlier in the evening and fasting overnight could be beneficial for you,” says Hultin. “There are many types of intermittent fasting, so ensuring you pick one that works for you and your lifestyle is important.”
How it works: The IIFYM diet lets you eat anything you want and you’ll lose weight as long as you meet your prescribed daily set of macronutrients (carbs, proteins and fats). Calculate your personal macros by figuring out your total daily expenditure, then how many calories you should eat per day to lose weight. From there, you’ll divide the calories into the percentage of calories that should come from fat (20 percent), protein (40 percent) and carbohydrates (40 percent).
Unintentional weight loss may result from loss of body fats, loss of body fluids, muscle atrophy, or even a combination of these.[25][26] It is generally regarded as a medical problem when at least 10% of a person's body weight has been lost in six months[25][27] or 5% in the last month.[28] Another criterion used for assessing weight that is too low is the body mass index (BMI).[29] However, even lesser amounts of weight loss can be a cause for serious concern in a frail elderly person.[30]
The total fertility rate (TFR) - the average number of children born to a woman over her lifetime — differs significantly between different regions of the world. In 2016, the highest estimated TFR was in Niger (6.62 children born per woman) and the lowest in Singapore (0.82 children/woman).[69] While most Sub-Saharan African countries have a high TFR, which creates problems due to lack of resources and contributes to overpopulation, most Western countries currently experience a sub replacement fertility rate which may lead to population ageing and population decline.
This small company, founded by soda-loving parents who wanted something healthier for their children, distributes a variety of classic flavors, from cola to ginger ale to grape, without using artificial sweeteners or artificial colors. Instead, they’re sweetened with the sugar alcohol Erythritol. “The upside is that sugar alcohols are not as artificial as some of their counterparts in the low/zero calorie sugar industry,” says Smith, “but they can cause gastrointestinal upset like gas a diarrhea when consumed in excess—although some say that erythritol may be better tolerated than other sugar alcohols. The other plus,” she continues, “is that unlike other sweeteners—specifically artificial sweeteners—they are not thousands of times sweeter than sugar, so they may cause less metabolic confusion in terms of sweetness as compared to caloric delivery, although more research still needed.” Brilliantly, this root beer tastes like the real thing—and is clear, because there’s no caramel color. And what about Diet Coke, or your favorite? See where it ranks on this list of 38 Diet Sodas—Ranked!
It’s easy to see the front of a package and get lured in by misleading claims, particularly those that say they’re “free-from” something, says Taub-Dix. She points out that gluten-free foods may also be high in sugar, salt, calories, and fat and contain less fiber—and thus be weight-promoting. Reading the nutrition label will give you the real truth for what you’re buying.

Everyone’s water needs are different, but the Mayo Clinic recommends that most people aim to drink eight eight-ounce glasses of fluid a day. “That’s a good jumping off point, but a lot of people do better with more,” Cording says. That doesn’t mean you should guzzle gallons of water a day, but having an extra glass or two could make a big difference.
There is a substantial market for products which claim to make weight loss easier, quicker, cheaper, more reliable, or less painful. These include books, DVDs, CDs, cremes, lotions, pills, rings and earrings, body wraps, body belts and other materials, fitness centers, clinics, personal coaches, weight loss groups, and food products and supplements.[22]

It's hard to argue with the American Heart Association. Luckily, the same foods that the AHA recommends—fruits and vegetables, whole grains, low-fat dairy, chicken and fish, nuts, legumes—are the same ones that are recommended time and time again for weight loss. You're also told to limit foods high in sat fat, trans fat, and sodium, which can both help you cut calories and reduce bloating. Sounds good to us.
Although a greater number of women are seeking higher education, their salaries are often less than those of men. CBS News claimed in 2005 that in the United States women who are ages 30 to 44 and hold a university degree make 62 percent of what similarly qualified men do, a lower rate than in all but three of the 19 countries for which numbers are available. Some Western nations with greater inequity in pay are Germany, New Zealand and Switzerland.[50]
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Like protein, fiber slows the rate at which your body plows through carb calories so you feel full for longer and maintain steadier blood sugar levels, one reason why research consistently links fiber intake to weight loss. That means fibrous whole grain bread tends to be a better choice than white bread and also explains why fruits, which contain fiber and valuable vitamins in addition to sugar, beat straight-up candy every time.
With every glass, this spa water is sure to refresh and rehydrate you. All it takes is one cinnamon stick and a red apple. This is all it takes to put together one of the finest detox water recipes known to women. Children especially adore these kinds of brews. As such, the weight-loss powers extend to all ages. The tastiness does not hurt this drinks positive reputation either. It is uniquely suited for the colder seasons, and it garners plenty of holiday cheer. Both of the essential components within this beverage automatically act as appetite suppressants, so snacking ceases to exist.
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The formation is peculiar to English and Dutch. Replaced older Old English wif and quean as the word for "female human being." The pronunciation of the singular altered in Middle English by the rounding influence of -w-; the plural retains the original vowel. Meaning "wife," now largely restricted to U.S. dialectal use, is attested from mid-15c. Women's liberation is attested from 1966; women's rights is from 1840, with an isolated example in 1630s.
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As you will realize, this pair makes one of the best homemade weight loss drinks, and this is why; grapefruit is rich in the AMP-activated protein kinase enzyme. This enzyme has the effect of boosting sugar assimilation in the body. Thus, the enzyme works to enhance shedding of calories and increasing the metabolic rate. Grapefruit also enhances body hydration.

While the feminist movement has certainly promoted the importance of the issues attached to female education the discussion is wide-ranging and by no means narrowly defined. It may include, for example, HIV/AIDS education.[1] Universal education, meaning state-provided primary and secondary education independent of gender is not yet a global norm, even if it is assumed in most developed countries. In some Western countries, women have surpassed men at many levels of education. For example, in the United States in 2005/2006, women earned 62% of associate degrees, 58% of bachelor's degrees, 60% of master's degrees, and 50% of doctorates.[2]
The Mediterranean diet, which is additionally defined by high intake of fiber, moderate alcohol and meat intake, antioxidants, and polyphenols, does have favorable effects on heart disease, cancer risk, obesity, metabolic syndrome, and "is potentially associated with defense against neurodegenerative disease and preservation of cognitive function, reduced inflammation, and defense against asthma."
3. (tie) The Mayo Clinic diet, Mediterranean diet, and Weight Watchers (3.9 stars): Mayo is cited for its good nutrition and safety, as well as being ''a tool against diabetes." The Mediterranean Diet is called sensible. Weight Watchers ''surpassed other commercial diet plans in multiple areas," the experts say, ''including short- and long-term weight loss and how easy it is to follow."
Food journaling may not sound sexy, but time and time again research proves that it works. In fact, according to a study from Kaiser Permanente's Center for Health Research, keeping a food diary can double a person's weight loss. “Without this tool, many people forget the snacks and bites taken while standing, preparing food for others or munching in the car. Over time these unrecognized snacks can lead to several extra pounds gained per year,” says Gueron. If you’re not the pad and paper type, Ansel recommends keeping a running journal on your smartphone or trying an app like MyFitness Pal or Lose It.
Talk about heart ache: high blood pressure stresses arteries, and can make you more susceptible to heart disease. To eat to lower your blood pressure, you just need to focus on heart-healthy bites. The American Heart Association recommends loading up on fruits, veggies, whole grains, low- or non-fat dairy, beans, lean meats, and fish. Bonus: no one's ever gotten fat eating more kale and beans.

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