When it comes to weight loss, this DIY detox water sets the gold standard for efficiency. The central ingredient is apple cider vinegar. An added bonus of this brew is the inadvertent generations of flawless skin. It treats acne problems and complexion issues automatically. Also, apples help people feel full for a longer period of time, which makes dieting a much easier feat. Similarly, cinnamon is also used to speed up metabolism and halt consumption cravings. By burning excess sugars, this spicy addition to the mix prevents fat storage from occurring. Lemons add fierce flair to this flavorful remedy!
The total fertility rate (TFR) - the average number of children born to a woman over her lifetime — differs significantly between different regions of the world. In 2016, the highest estimated TFR was in Niger (6.62 children born per woman) and the lowest in Singapore (0.82 children/woman).[69] While most Sub-Saharan African countries have a high TFR, which creates problems due to lack of resources and contributes to overpopulation, most Western countries currently experience a sub replacement fertility rate which may lead to population ageing and population decline.
If you’ve been eating fast food for years, get real about your approach: You’re probably not going to stick to an organic, gluten-free, paleo overhaul for very long. “You want to change as little as possible to create calorie deficit,” says Dr. Seltzer, who insists the best way to support sustainable weight loss is to incorporate small changes into existing habits. So instead of giving up your daily BLT bagels in favor of an egg-white wrap, try ordering your sandwich on a lighter English muffin. Or say you eat a snack bar every afternoon: Swap your 300-calorie bar for a 150-calorie alternative. “Your brain will feel the same way about it, so you won’t feel deprived,” he says.
In what is perhaps the biggest buzzkill of all time, sex doesn’t quite count as cardio or burn a significant amount of calories: Women burn about 3.6 per minute. “It’s still a good idea,” Dr. Seltzer says, citing the activity’s other benefits, like increasing the output of the neurotransmitters serotonin and dopamine, which naturally reduce food cravings.

weight loss plan


"These diets are so restrictive that of course you're going to lose weight fast because you're not eating enough calories to sustain basic activities of your body, let alone any exercise. That's nothing that any person can sustain for the long term," Hogan said. "The weight's going to come back if you do lose any weight, and then it's going to be harder to lose weight in the future."
best way to lose weight

Though Katz also says it isn’t nearly enough. "That doesn't help you pick the most nutritious bread, or the best pasta sauce. A member of the foodie elite might say you shouldn't eat anything from a bag, box, bottle, jar, or can." That's admittedly impractical. "We do need to look at all the details that populate the space between where we are and where we want to be."
quick weight loss diet

With the proliferation of macronutrient-based diets over the past several decades, from low-fat to low-carbohydrate, discussion of the three main macronutrients – carbohydrates, proteins, and fats – has become standard when talking about optimal diets. Researchers have begun comparing these “macronutrient management”-style diets to one another in order to determine which is most effective, but thus far evidence is largely inconclusive.
In a recent Eat This, Not That! taste test, we rounded up all of the light beers we could find that ranked among the top 20 most purchased beers in America. we managed to track down all but Busch Light and Michelob Ultra and filled in the rest of the list with light beers we felt would be missed if they weren’t included. You know, the household names that don’t have the really big advertising bucks behind them. We ended up with a solid list of 13 brews. Of the 13, Sam Adams Light ranked numero uno. It was lauded for its discernable nutty flavor and relatively full body. One tester even noted that it “tasted like something I might find in a nice beer garden!” To find out which other tasty beers topped our list, check out the full report on the Best Light Beers in America.
Those who have achieved successful weight loss report making substantial changes in eating and exercise habits in order to lose weight and maintain their losses. On average, registrants report consuming about 1400 kcal/day (24 percent calories from fat) and burning about 400 kcal/day through physical exercise. Walking is the most frequently cited physical activity.
Good article Monique! While I agree with on “The best diet is the one we can maintain for life” not everyone can start eating healthy right away. In my opinion quick diets and fast weight losing methods have their own place. I studied in Harvard over ten years ago and have a plenty of love for the school and community, but you should not say no to fast diets right away. I was overweight for a long time because I just couldn’t change my habits. It was when I tried the 2 week diet plan that I started seeing results for the first time. After losing few pounds I became motivated and now I have lost a lot more weight. Even if you are skeptical I would recommend you checking it out, if you are overweight.
It is also the case that certain forms of violence against women have been recognized as criminal offenses only during recent decades, and are not universally prohibited, in that many countries continue to allow them. This is especially the case with marital rape.[60][61] In the Western World, there has been a trend towards ensuring gender equality within marriage and prosecuting domestic violence, but in many parts of the world women still lose significant legal rights when entering a marriage.[62]
In a study on adults age 54 and over, people who had a higher marker for the stress hormone cortisol were more likely to weigh more, have a higher BMI and a larger waistline, according to UK researchers. High cortisol levels promote fat storage, particularly belly fat. Learning stress reduction strategies—and using them when necessary—can help you lose weight without needing to change your diet.
This daily reflection (not a food log or calorie count) has been a great way to see where my issues are—and give myself mini-congratulations for the good things along the way. If there's anyone out there who would like to set up a similar system of accountability, please reach out. I can't provide the same level of expertise, but I can listen. And trust me, it helps.
Some diet plans, such as the MIND diet and the DASH diet, are meant to focus on certain areas of health — and weight loss may be a bonus. Others are created with weight loss as a primary goal. “It is important to remember that we are all very unique individuals,” says Kyle. “We all have different states of health and different lifestyles, which could affect what diet plan is best for us. That means that you should not be considering what is working for your friends or family members — and instead should pay attention to what works for you individually.”
Whether your reason for going vegetarian is ethical, environmental, or for health, one thing's for sure: weight loss can be a nice bonus. In fact, in that same study that evaluated vegan, vegetarian, and omnivorous diets, vegetarian diets were almost as effective as vegan—helping people lose 6.3 percent of their body weight compared to 7.5 percent in the vegan group in a half year. Bonus: perfection isn't necessary. Even if you fall off the wagon and break your diet (hey, it happens!) another study found that dieting vegetarians still lost more weight than dieting meat eaters.
Over the last three months I’ve lost 22 pounds simply by upping my exercise and reducing bad calories. I’m 68 years old, always in good shape, but added sedentary pounds as I aged. (6 feet tall, 212 pounds before — 190 pounds now) I’ve generally restricted my diet to about 1200 calories a day — 200 – 300 for breakfast, 200 for lunch, and about 700 or less for the rest of the day. I try to vary the foods, do as much exercise as I can (biking, swimming, walking, weights). I drink as much non-caloric liquid as I can and I try to find food that fills me up — vegetables, fruits, mostly. I eat some cheese and a good hamburger occasionally, although I avoid most meat. I still work full time. I realize the discipline necessary, but it’s not that hard to do. I rely on a good scale and moderate my diet each day to keep a constant weight. My blood pressure has dropped from 130/80 to 117/72 and heart rate is resting 58. I’m lucky that my chronic diseases are not yet serious (osteoarthritis and borderline cholesterol, although I dont take statins because of reactions). I’m not a diet fadder, but using common sense goes a long way. Eat smart and work out. MM
best way to lose weight fast

While to this day women are studying at prestigious universities at the same rate as men,[clarification needed] they are not being given the same chance to join faculty. Sociologist Harriet Zuckerman has observed that the more prestigious an institute is, the more difficult and time-consuming it will be for women to obtain a faculty position there. In 1989, Harvard University tenured its first woman in chemistry, Cynthia Friend, and in 1992 its first woman in physics, Melissa Franklin. She also observed that women were more likely to hold their first professional positions as instructors and lecturers while men are more likely to work first in tenure positions. According to Smith and Tang, as of 1989, 65 percent of men and only 40 percent of women held tenured positions and only 29 percent of all scientists and engineers employed as assistant professors in four-year colleges and universities were women.[89]


While it’s good to be aware of portion sizes on nutrition labels, why not flip them to your benefit? For example, instead of a bowl of ice cream with a few blueberries, have a bowl of blueberries with a spoonful of ice cream. While one cup of ice cream has more than 250 calories and not much in the way of nutrition, one cup of blueberries contains only 80 calories and is a good source of fiber and vitamin C. Or, instead of a plate of pasta with some veggies, have a plate of veggies with some pasta. A mix of steamed or roasted cruciferous vegetables works great with a smaller amount of pasta. Not only does this ingredient swap cut the calories in the dish, the additional veggies provide nutrients like fiber, potassium and vitamin A.
fast weight loss plan

Level of difficulty: Giving up fatty, sugary and salty treats is never easy, but the DASH diet doesn’t restrict entire food groups, making it more likely you’ll stay with the plan. Plus, the lean protein and fiber filled meals ensure you won’t be battling hunger pangs either. It requires no specialty foods or recipes and you’re not counting calories or points, just daily servings from various food groups.
diets to lose weight fast

This high-fat, adequate-protein, low-carb fad diet sends the body into a state of ketosis, in which the body uses stored fat for energy. Research published in Clinical Cardiology suggests the ketogenic, or “keto,” diet can be an effective weight-loss method, but to be successful, you must follow the plan consistently with no cheat days — otherwise, you’re just eating a high-fat diet that may be high in unhealthy fats for no reason. (1)
It is time to give your detox drink a twist of tea. The ancient Chinese tea leaves are one of the planets leading sources of antioxidants, so they are sure to flush all poisons from the system right away. The plant also provides decent doses of caffeine, which makes it a great utility before working out. Many dieters consider this to be the best weight loss alternative available, especially when compared to coffee. All it takes to assemble a cup of this decadent hydration is strawberries, lemons, cucumbers, honey and a single bag of green tea. Welcome to detoxification nirvana!
Listen up: Skipping meals will not make you lose weight faster. If a hectic day makes a sit-down meal impossible, stash an energy bar or a piece of fruit in your car or tote, keep snacks in your office desk drawer, and make a point of getting up to grab a nosh — anything that will keep you from going hungry! Going long periods of time without food does double-duty harm on our healthy eating efforts by both slowing down your metabolism, and priming you for another binge later in the day. (Think: You've skipped breakfast and lunch, so you're ready to takedown a whole turkey by dinner!) Make it your mission to eat three meals and two snacks every day, and don't wait longer than three to four hours without eating. Set a "snack alarm" on your phone if needed.
Female education includes areas of gender equality and access to education, and its connection to the alleviation of poverty. Also involved are the issues of single-sex education and religious education in that the division of education along gender lines as well as religious teachings on education have been traditionally dominant and are still highly relevant in contemporary discussions of educating females as a global consideration.
diet plan weight loss

Food for thought: Moskovitz considers Volumetrics one of the best options for weight loss. The diet plan teaches you the caloric value of foods without the need to track everything you eat. It’s not disruptive to your lifestyle either. Simply choose low-calorie foods that fill you up. Volumetrics is also a great option for weight maintenance, she says.
THIS TOOL DOES NOT PROVIDE MEDICAL ADVICE. It is intended for general informational purposes only and does not address individual circumstances. It is not a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment and should not be relied on to make decisions about your health. Never ignore professional medical advice in seeking treatment because of something you have read on the WebMD Site. If you think you may have a medical emergency, immediately call your doctor or dial 911.
Caffeine-free and devoid of any artificial flavors, colors or preservatives, Alo Awaken is like a bottle of fresh air—literally! The boost you get comes from a one-ounce shot of wheatgrass—a plant rich in chlorophyll that oxygenates your body by amping up red blood-cell production. A study in The Journal of Surgery found supplementing with chlorophyll may also serve as a powerful immunity boost, able to increase wound healing time by up to 25 percent.
This cucumber detox water is an ideal starting point for all dieters. The diuretic properties guarantee that all moisture will be rapidly flushed from the system. Tart grapefruit delivers a revitalizing rush of flavor, and the fruit is packed with fat-burning enzymes. All of the citrus contained within this refreshing beverage is designed to heal the internal digestive tract. Mint leaves briskly finalize the drinks ability to easy any tummys woes while losing weight fast. This tasty brew only takes ten minutes to prepare, and it yields 8 potently cleansing servings. All ingredients are simply combined 2 hours before consumption.
Capture eternal elegance, casual comfort and stylish sophistication in your wardrobe when you shop women’s clothes from Brooks Brothers. For generations, we’ve defined American quality and prestige with fashionable pieces tailored to be as covetable as they are distinct. Our commitment to authenticity shows in our assortment of quality women’s clothing for work, formal affairs and weekend relaxation. Browse shirts and tops, pants and skirts, and dresses and suits in your choice of classic, fitted or tailored styles to find the ideal silhouette for you. Complete your look with women’s shoes and belts, and throw on the perfect jacket or coat for good measure. Browse by clothing type or explore our ladies’ clothes collections that bring together complementary pieces for easy-to-shop assortments with exciting possibilities. Find enduring and ageless looks in our Timeless Classics collection, or discover the newest trends of the moment when you shop the latest looks created by our in-house designers. For a playful, up-to-date twist on the classic Brooks Brothers aesthetic, our Red Fleece Collection offers unique looks for both work and play. Before you check out, remember to swing through our women’s clothes sale to get irresistible savings on items throughout our most popular collections.
how to lose weight quickly

Continuing weight loss may deteriorate into wasting, a vaguely defined condition called cachexia.[30] Cachexia differs from starvation in part because it involves a systemic inflammatory response.[30] It is associated with poorer outcomes.[25][30][31] In the advanced stages of progressive disease, metabolism can change so that they lose weight even when they are getting what is normally regarded as adequate nutrition and the body cannot compensate. This leads to a condition called anorexia cachexia syndrome (ACS) and additional nutrition or supplementation is unlikely to help.[27] Symptoms of weight loss from ACS include severe weight loss from muscle rather than body fat, loss of appetite and feeling full after eating small amounts, nausea, anemia, weakness and fatigue.[27]
On each day, you’ll enjoy—and we do mean enjoy—a blended smoothie designed to complement the natural weight loss and lean muscle gain you’ll see from the Zero Belly program. Studies show that high-protein, low-fat smoothies are highly effective at rushing nutrients to your muscles—which is why Dave recommends you have your drink immediately after exercise—and that blended fruit drinks, which include all the fiber, will actually keep you fuller longer than fruit juices. Click here to get the recipe for his favorite smoothie, the Strawberry Banana.
Yet there is value in having a variety of diets to choose from, and in tailoring eating plans to help people with specific health concerns — such as diabetes or obesity — manage their conditions, says Andrea Giancoli, a California-based registered dietitian who, along with Katz, consulted on U.S. News & World Report‘s annual ranking of best diets this year. Comparing diets in this way may help steer people away from ineffective or unsustainable fads, Giancoli says.
how to lose weight

For a pink and perky dieting treat, this luscious mint detox water is a festively progressive selection. With two tablespoons of raspberries, tartness is practically this drink’s middle name. These antioxidants are riddled with cleansing properties. The mint base shows that this brew means business. While the fruit goes to work by kicking out all unwanted biological agents, the mint leaves have a contrastingly calming effect. This duality results in a complementary approach to aiding digestion and losing weight. It is hard to believe that such a sweet treat has so few calories. This medicinal blend is downright addictive and sublime.
If you ever need to treat a hangover, you’ve just stumbled on the right beverage for getting the job done. Coconut water is intensely hydrating, and it possesses an uncanny ability to mitigate come-downs from alcohol. It eases digestion and flushes harmful chemicals. A small navel orange pushes protective measures into the digestive systems, and blueberries banish all internal poisons while energizing the mind. With 4 sprigs of lush lavender, this drink is sultry and aromatic. This cunning combination can treat headaches and stomach aches alike. As an added bonus, the entire detox recipe is vegan and free of gluten.
Health.com is part of the Meredith Health Group. All rights reserved. The material in this site is intended to be of general informational use and is not intended to constitute medical advice, probable diagnosis, or recommended treatments. All products and services featured are selected by our editors. Health.com may receive compensation for some links to products and services on this website. Offers may be subject to change without notice. See the Terms of Service and Privacy Policy (Your California Rights)for more information. Ad Choices | EU Data Subject Requests
Also known as branch chain amino acids. BCAAs are three amino acids known as Leucine, Valine and Iso-Leucine. They help prevent muscle breakdown and can be bought as yummy flavoured powders to use in place as sports drinks. Drink them during your workout instead of water as they will help you tone up as you lose that belly and may even help in the formation of abdominal muscle.
In more recent history, gender roles have changed greatly. Originally, starting at a young age, aspirations occupationally are typically veered towards specific directions according to gender.[47] Traditionally, middle class women were involved in domestic tasks emphasizing child care. For poorer women, especially working class women, although this often remained an ideal,[specify] economic necessity compelled them to seek employment outside the home. Many of the occupations that were available to them were lower in pay than those available to men.[citation needed]
Unlike many bottled drinks that are heated during pasteurization and sometimes hide both synthetic and genetically modified ingredients (as well as a ton of added sugar!), fresh juices are totally raw and you control what goes in them. It’s believed that consuming raw produce boosts digestion by preserving vital enzymes, which means you can beat the bloat and sip your way to more regular bowel movements for a flat, happy tummy!
Say good riddance to the summers filled with unhealthy lemonade. Kiss the bellyaches goodbye by switching to the joy of this stunningly sweet strawberry detox water. A rich lemon core purifies the entire digestive arena, and it masks most of the complex flavor with a brilliant spectacle of sour. Scrunched basil leaves really amplify the tang, and strawberries bring endless antioxidants to the table. Overall, this is not a drink to be trifled with; however, it can be enjoyed during all occasions. As a bonus, it offers a great method to show off a gardeners grand harvest each coming year.
This shake is a surprisingly good option–especially considering the low quality of some of Special K’s cereals. Whereas some of their cereal boxes are loaded with plain sugar, the sugar counts on these bottles include natural lactose from the nonfat milk base. Grab the malted chocolate flavor for a classic dessert-inspired treat that will fill you up instead of leaving you with a sugar crash.
Soy milk is both the source of protein in this fruity shake and the first ingredient, followed closely by banana puree. The complex carbs from the fruit give you sustained energy, plenty of potassium and a deliciously creamy bottled shake. The dessert-like flavor gets high praises from fans of this brand, but it’s in a dead heat with other drool-worthy flavors like Spiced Chai and Cappuccino.
Sodas, as most of the MyFitnessPal community knows, are liquid sugar. They do little to satiate hunger. But that’s also true of many other beverages, including energy drinks, iced lattes, bottled green teas, smoothies, sports drinks, alcoholic beverages, sweetened teas and, yes, even those fresh-pressed organic juices from your local juice bar. Most of these contain a lot of sugar and very little fiber to help keep you full. A few hundred calories per day can add up quickly, as many people fail to factor liquid calories into their daily intake.

The MIND diet, or Mediterranean-DASH Intervention for Neurodegenerative Delay, is a sort of hybrid between the DASH diet and the Mediterranean diet. It features foods meant to slow the progression or development of Alzheimer’s disease, the most common form of dementia and an incurable neurodegenerative condition that more than 5 million Americans are living with, according to the Alzheimer’s Association. (12) Some research backs up this notion, including a study published in September 2016 in Alzheimer’s Dementia that found a link between following the MIND Diet and a reduced risk of the disease. (13)
Before a workout, turbocharge the fat-blasting effects by sipping a cup of green tea. In a recent 12-week study, participants who combined a daily habit of 4-5 cups of green tea each day with a 25-minute sweat session lost an average of two more pounds than the non tea-drinking exercisers. Thank the compounds in green tea called catechins, flat belly crusaders that blast adipose tissue by triggering the release of fat from fat cells (particularly in the belly), and then speeding up the liver’s capacity for turning that fat into energy. See how tea can help you lose up to 10 pounds in one week on THE 17-DAY GREEN TEA DIET.

Real talk: It could take weeks or months to see the metabolic effects of exercise on the scale, and even then, building muscle, which is denser than body fat, could lead to weight gain. “Do what you like because it’s good for you,” Dr. Seltzer says, noting the way exercise is awesome for your heart, mental health, and more—and that not all measure of progress can be seen on the scale.
This heavenly brew is sweeter than soda, but it is also much healthier. The pineapple is a dense source of digestive enzymes. They really know how to make a girls stomach happy. The fruit, which is related to most berries, also contains a diverse assortment of beneficial vitamins. Meanwhile, the watermelon keeps the water watery by diluting the gelatinousness of other ingredients. Muddled rosemary finalizes this rare potion. This herbal infusion is great for easing pains in the lower belly, and it also helps wake up drowsy individuals. This recipe is shockingly irresistible, and every cup is hard to put down.
weight loss drinks

Many diets, including Atkins and the keto diet, fit into this umbrella. A typical low-carb diet limits carbs to less than 60 g daily, but this can vary, according to the Mayo Clinic. (15) In a September 2015 review published in PLOS One, people following low-carb diets saw modest weight loss — although study authors note that long-term effects of the diet require further research. (16)

Your New Year's resolution diet should be based on a well-balanced eating plan that fits your lifestyle, rather than a weird fad replete with food restrictions. That's according to U.S. News & World Report's best diet rankings for 2018. The two diets that tied for the top spot -- the Mediterranean Diet and the DASH Diet -- fit that bill because they feature real food and reasonable, flexible guidelines, experts said.


Talk about heart ache: high blood pressure stresses arteries, and can make you more susceptible to heart disease. To eat to lower your blood pressure, you just need to focus on heart-healthy bites. The American Heart Association recommends loading up on fruits, veggies, whole grains, low- or non-fat dairy, beans, lean meats, and fish. Bonus: no one's ever gotten fat eating more kale and beans.
How it works: The Whole30 diet plan resets your body by eliminating inflammatory food groups for 30 days. The theory is that something you eat is to blame for your medical condition. After a month, your body heals and you can reintroduce foods back one at a time and your body’s reaction will tell you if it should stay or be eliminated completely from your diet.

A great pick-me-up for dieters, Bai5 serves up a gentle 35 mg caffeine plus 200 g of antioxidant-rich white tea. A study published in the journal Nutrition and Metabolism showed that white tea may be especially powerful at targeting fat cells, with the ability to simultaneously boost lipolysis (the breakdown of fat) and block adipogenesis (the formation of fat cells) due to high levels of fat-fighting compounds called catechins, belly-fat crusaders that blast adipose tissue by revving the metabolism, increasing the release of fat from fat cells. The folks at Bai tell us their most popular flavors are coconut, blueberry and mango & pomegranate.
weight loss diet

The results from these three studies suggest that there may be some benefits to a macronutrient-based dietary approach, but research also shows that while a particular diet may result in weight loss for one person, it may not be effective for another person due to individual differences in genes and lifestyle. For those seeking the “perfect” one-size-fits-all diet, then, there isn’t one! The great news is that everyone can follow The Healthy Eating Plate guidelines and choose healthy, flavorful foods to create a diet that works best for you.
Clean Green Drinks isn’t just about weight loss, but better-fitting jeans is often a happy side effect of juicing. That’s because most fruits and vegetables are low calorie, low in fat, and packed with fiber and vital vitamins and antioxidants that will keep you satisfied and full of energy as you lose weight. Researchers at Baylor College of Medicine found that dieters who drank an eight-ounce glass of low- sodium vegetable juice daily over a 12-week period lost, on average, four pounds more than dieters who did not drink the juice. Replace your regular breakfast or lunch with a divine low-calorie, nutrient-packed juice or smoothie and cleanse away the pounds!
The fad military diet consists of low-calorie, odd food pairings such as bun-less hot dogs with banana, carrots, and broccoli. “Any diet like the military diet that severely limits the amount of calories you consume or eliminates one or more entire food groups puts any individual at risk for nutrient deficiencies,” says Kyle. “This can be more harmful than holding onto those 10 extra lbs you’re trying to lose.” (32)
They serve a variety of functions that range from physiological to psychological. Mentally, these brews are awesome alternatives for snacks and meals. They fulfill the pleasurable reward principles without incurring any physical sacrifices. Similarly, anything that causes weight gain can be counteracted by adhering to the ritualistic consumption of detoxification water.

Control Your Environments. Another simple strategy to help cut calories is to control your environment -- everything from stocking your kitchen with lots of healthy options to choosing the right restaurants. That means avoiding the temptation by staying away from all-you-can-eat restaurants. And when it comes to parties, "eat a healthy snack before so you won't be starving, and be selective when you fill your plate at the buffet," suggests Ward. Before going back for more food, wait at least 15 minutes and have a big glass of water.


The ultimate point of this diet review, which is framed like a tournament, is that there is no winner. More than that, antagonistic talk in pursuit of marketing a certain diet, emphasizing mutual exclusivity—similar to arguments against bipartisan political rhetoric—is damaging to the entire system and conversation. Exaggerated emphasis on a single nutrient or food is inadvisable. The result, Katz and Meller write, is a mire of perpetual confusion and doubt. Public health could benefit on a grand scale from a unified front in health media: Endorsement of the basic theme of what we do know to be healthful eating and candid acknowledgement of the many details we do not know.
Women have, throughout history, made contributions to science, literature and art. One area where women have been permitted most access historically was that of obstetrics and gynecology (prior to the 18th century, caring for pregnant women in Europe was undertaken by women; from the mid 18th century onwards medical monitoring of pregnant women started to require rigorous formal education, to which women did not generally have access, therefore the practice was largely transferred to men).[95][96]

weight loss

×